Glaucoma is a disease in which the optic nerve is damaged, leading to progressive, irreversible loss of vision. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure in the eye.
The nerve damage involves loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern. There are many different sub-types of glaucoma but they can all be considered a type of optic neuropathy. Raised intraocular pressure is a significant risk factor for developing glaucoma (above 22 mmHg). Untreated glaucoma leads to permanent damage of the optic nerve and resultant visual field loss, which can progress to blindness.
There are many glaucoma surgeries, and variations or combinations of these surgeries. They mostly work by facilitating the outflow of pressure. Most commonly performed procedures are a Trabeculectomy or insertion of a tube (Ahmed or Molteno) or valve (Express).
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